Nasal bleeding frequency are the most common spontaneous bleeding, and make up according to different sources of 3-5% of the total number of hospitalized in ENT hospitals.
Differences in the number and nature of nasal bleeding, ceteris paribus, between the male and female sex were observed.
Nosebleeds usually occur suddenly and may be accompanied by significant blood loss. At the heart of epistaxis is a violation of the integrity of the vascular wall or clotting disorder. Nasal bleeding can be spontaneous or induced by various injuries. Causes of nasal bleeding taken to separate local and general.
The local causes include:
with superficial vascular plexus in the nasal septum is easily damaged, and that becomes the most frequent cause of nasal bleeding (90% of cases);
trauma, which may be of different strengths – from the most seemingly harmless habit of picking his nose up to considerable accompanied by fractures of the facial skeleton;
foreign bodies in the nasal cavity, which can provoke bleeding, directly injuring the mucous membrane, or causing inflammation at the site of their long stay. This is especially true for young children, who often put their nose in various subjects, and then forget about it or hide from adults. In this case, accompanied by a purulent bloody discharge with an unpleasant smell;
various benign and malignant tumors of the nasal cavity (in children the most frequent benign Education);
curvature of the nasal septum, which, along with recurrent bleeding in most cases will be observed difficulty in nasal breathing;
anomalies of the vascular system of the nasal cavity – with different localization expansion of the arteries and veins;
changing the structure of the mucous membranes in various infections (tuberculosis, syphilis, diphtheria) and chronic rhinitis;
nosebleeds in children may arise from the fact that the air in the room dry. Dried mucous membrane of the nasal septum by shrinking the blood vessel wall, and they lose their elasticity and strength. As a result, when sneezing, blowing noses, etc., the dried mucous membrane cracks and dried-up tears with her blood vessel.
The causes of nasal bleeding should include the general nature of the disease or condition accompanied by violations of the phasing properties of blood and their combination in violation of the permeability of the vascular wall:
blood disorders (eg, hemophilia – congenital abnormality characterized by absence or deficiency of one of the clotting factors);
increased vascular permeability during inflammation (vasculitis), resulting in severe infections such as measles, influenza and so on;
with a deficiency of vitamin C (hypovitaminosis C);
with hereditary diseases characterized by disturbances in the structure of the vascular wall;
chronic liver disease (hepatitis, cirrhosis);
chronic inflammatory diseases of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses;
state, accompanied by the rise in blood pressure (renal hypertension – elevated blood pressure in renal disease, exercise, sunstroke, overheating).
Nasal bleeding can start suddenly, often during sleep. The bleeding is unilateral or directly from the two halves of the nose. Bleeding are of varying intensity and duration. In some cases, the blood flows slowly and stopped spontaneously, while others poured blood stream, the bleeding may continue for a long time and does not stop spontaneously.
It is important to understand that emerged nosebleeds, even in case of injury, may be the first sign of terrible diseases (eg, blood diseases), and subsequently have a debilitating recurring (recurring) course. In all cases of nasal bleeding should consult a specialist, and should begin the survey by visiting the Children’s ENT doctor, who will examine the nasal cavity, radiography appoint the paranasal sinuses.
If the cause of nasal bleeding, local, and in particular – superficial vessels in the nasal septum, a specialist may carry out their cauterization (coagulation) in various ways: electricity, laser (electro-or laser coagulation) or liquid nitrogen (kriovozdeystvie). Indications for cauterization of vessels are recurrent nosebleeds (sometimes they are repeated several times a week and bring considerable inconvenience to the patient), unsuccessful attempts to stop bleeding in other ways; pronounced bleeding, the development as a result of repeated bleeding, anemia (anemia), and exhaustion.
In the presence of foreign bodies in the nasal passages, the polyps showed deleting them, etc. If common causes of bleeding, it will be assigned to various surveys, for example, blood tests, as well as additional consultation with other professionals: haematologist (a doctor for the treatment of blood diseases), pediatrician, etc.
Chronic bleeding is the cause of slowly growing depletion of the organism, the formation of anemia. If anemic immunity – reduced resistance to pathogens and constantly changing environmental conditions. Chronic anoxia causes the appearance of the pathological state, at which the irreversible changes in structure and function of most organs.
Blood loss in a large volume leads to severe consequences for the organism, and in some cases to death. Bleeding can be acute or chronic. Acute hemorrhage causes rapid deterioration of the patient and in a short period of time can lead to loss of consciousness resulting from acute oxygen starvation of the brain, and in failing to stop – to death.